CFE Costing Out Approach
Sound Basic Education Task Force, Campaign for Fiscal Equity (Campaign for Fiscal Equity, Inc). Campaign for Fiscal Equity, Inc.. 05/2004. p. 31.
This report proposes a single foundation allocation amount for school districts in New York State which consolidates 39 existing categories for state aid, which increasing the percentage of the state share and providing districts with predictability and transparency in the way the schools are funded.
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Jay G. Chambers (American Institutes for Research), Thomas B. Parrish (American Institutes for Research), Jesse D. Levin (American Institutes for Research), James R. Smith (Management Analysis and Planning, Inc.), James W. Guthrie (Management Analysis and Planning, Inc.), Rich C. Seder (Management Analysis and Planning, Inc.) & Lori Taylor (Texas A&M University). Campaign for Fiscal Equity, Inc.. 03/2004. p. 122.
(summarized): Based on a professional judgment approach and “costing out” method, this AIR/MAP joint study suggests to ensure the “full opportunity to meet the Regents Learning Standards” to all students in the New York State, 520 districts would have acquired additional funds which depend on the operation costs and geographic costs difference.
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Jay G. Chambers (American Institutes for Research), James R. Smith (Management Analysis and Planning, Inc.), Thomas B. Parrish (American Institutes for Research), Jesse D. Levin (American Institutes for Research), James W. Guthrie (Management Analysis and Planning, Inc.), Rich C. Seder (Management Analysis and Planning, Inc.) & Lori Taylor (Texas A&M University). Campaign for Fiscal Equity, Inc.. 03/2004. p. 506.
This report provides summaries of public engagement forum organized by the research group, the Professional Judgment panel discussion, the costing calculation methodology and includes other related documents.
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The New York State Council on Costing Out (New York State Council on Costing Out). New York State Council on Costing Out. 06/2003. p. 38.
The report is based on an extensive public-engagement process in New York State. The major findings from the study suggest: under current state and federal education requirements, an adequate educational opportunity should be as a full opportunity for all students to meet Regents Learning Standards; at the present time, students not meeting standards or at risk of not meeting standards are not receiving all of the academic intervention services to which they are entitled by law; similarly special education students are not being supllied with the necessary supplementary aids and services to which they are entitled to succeed in inclusion settings; an educational program that ensures all students a full opportunity to meet Regents Learning Standards and all applicable federal requirements must provide qualified teachers, adequate school facilities, and sufficient and up-to-date material and equipment.
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Jay G. Chambers (American Institutes for Research), Thomas B. Parrish (American Institutes for Research), James R. Smith (Management Analysis and Planning, Inc.) & James W. Guthrie (Management Analysis and Planning, Inc.). American Institutes for Research. 11/2002. p. 15.
The objective of this project is to estimate the costs of providing the opportunity for an adequate education to all public school students in New York State.
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Sound Basic Education Task Force, Campaign for Fiscal Equity (Campaign for Fiscal Equity, Inc. ). Campaign for Fiscal Equity, Inc.. 01/2004. p. 55.
The report proposes to reform New York State's current practice to provide funding for school facilities in New York City, by updating the maximum cost allowance, eliminate Wicks Law requirements, replace “Select-Aid” and the “10% Incentive” with a 5-Year wealth aid ratio and create a new needs-based building aid ratio, partially restore Pay-As-You Go reimbursement, reform lease aid, and modify statutory bonding restrictions on urban school districts.
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Syracuse Costing-out Approach
William Duncombe (Center for Policy Research, The Maxwell School, Syracuse University), John Yinger (Education Finance and Accountability Program, Center for Policy Research, The Maxwell School, Syracuse University) & Anna Lukemeyer (University of Nevada, Las Vegas). Center for Policy Research. 01/2004. p. 32.
This policy brief reviews first various definitions of “sound basic education” used in the current debate on educational adequacy in New York State school finance reform. The main part of the brief discusses how to calculate the cost of a sound basic education once it has been defined by lawmakers.
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William Duncombe (Professor of Public Administration, and Senior Research Associate, Center for Policy Research, The Maxwell School, Syracuse University). Center for Policy Research. 01/2002. p. 126.
The objective of this study is to develop estimates of the costs of financing the achievement of higher standards. The key tools employed to estimate the cost of adequacy are education cost functions and cost of education indexes. The cost function approach uses statistical methods to extract from actual data the relationship between characteristics of students, the cost of living in an area, and the spending required to meet different performance standards. As long as recent history is a good predictor of the near future, the cost function approach should provide reasonably accurate estimates of the cost of adequacy.
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John Yinger (Center for Policy Research, The Maxwell School, Syracuse University). Center for Policy Research . 01/2001. p. 36.
This policy brief proposes a new formula for distributing educational aid in New York State, a formula designed to direct aid to the districts that, through no fault of their own, are in the greatest need of assistance. High-need districts are those with high educational costs or low property wealth. The formula will bring all school districts up to an adequate performance defined with reference to the new Regents graduation standards. This policy brief also explores various ways to share the cost of this program between school districts and the state.
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William Duncombe (Center for Policy Research, Syracuse University, NY) & John Yinger (Center for Policy Research, Syracuse University, NY). National Tax Journal. 01/1998. Vol. 51. Iss. 2. p. 239-263.
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William Duncombe (Center for Policy Research, The Maxwell School, Syracuse University) & John Yinger (Center for Policy Research, The Maxwell School, Syracuse University). Center for Policy Research . 01/1998. p. 26.
Using data from New York State, this brief shows that controlling for costs in the design of school aid formulas is crucial to enable central cities to reach educational adequacy standards.
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William Duncombe (Center for Policy Research, The Maxwell School, Syracuse University, NY) & John Yinger (Center for Policy Research, The Maxwell School, Syracuse University, NY). Economics of Education Review. 01/2005. Vol. In Press, Corrected Proof.
This paper provides a guide to statistically based methods for estimating the extra costs of educating disadvantaged students, shows how these methods are related, and compares state aid programs that account for these costs in different ways.
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William Duncombe (Center for Policy Research, The Maxwell School, Syracuse University), John Ruggiero (Department of Economics and Finance, University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio) & John Yinger (Center for Policy Research, The Maxwell School, Syracuse University). Center for Policy Research . 01/1995. p. 69.
This paper develops a method for estimating a comprehensive district-level educational cost index using new methods to select educational outcome measures and to control for school district efficiency.
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William Duncombe. Center for Policy Research. 11/2005. p. 58.
Using data from rural school districts in New York, this paper provides the first direct estimation of consolidations cost impacts. We find economies of size in operating and capital spending: doubling enrollment cuts total costs per pupil by 28 percent for a 300-pupil district and by 9 percent for a 1,500-pupil district.
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John Yinger & William Duncombe. Center for Policy Research. 9/17/2004.
In this brief, Yinger and Duncombe outline their costing-out method and discuss its implication for New York City school finance reform.
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